The first use of 3D scanning originates from the works of François Willème, a French artist who was born in 1830.
Willème was a painter, sculptor and photographer. He developed and patented a process of producing a portrait sculpture using multiple photo projections.
He called his invention photosculpture. As you can see in the image above and in the ones below, the process isn’t that different to what we call 3D scanning today.
If you are fluent in French, you can read the original article about the photosculpture here.